Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a medication used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss from major trauma, postpartum bleeding, surgery, tooth removal, nosebleeds, and heavy menstruation.It is also used for hereditary angioedema. It is taken either by mouth or injection into a vein.
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Tranexamic acid exerts its antifibrinolytic effect through the reversible blockade of lysinebinding sites on plasminogen molecules. Tranexamic acid inhibits endometrial plasminogen activator and thus prevents fibrinolysis and the breakdown of blood clots.
Tranexamic acid is used in orthopedic surgery to reduce bloodloss. Tranexamic acid is of proven value in clearing the field of surgery and reducing pre- and postoperative blood loss. Drain and number of transfusions are reduced. Tranexamic acid is commonly used in joint replacement surgery.
Tranexamic acid is also useful in the treatment of bleeding as a second line treatment after factor VIII in patients (e.g. tooth extraction).